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MAPS & WAR PHOTOGRAPHS
GENERAL VIEW : ENTRANCE TO CHARLESTON HARBOR
This map shows the entrance to Charleston Harbor. On the left are Morris, James, and Folly Islands. Morris Island was the first island attacked by General Gillmore's forces on July 10, 1863.
On the right of the entrance is Sullivan's Island, and numerous small islands, mostly sand bars, line the bay on either side.
In the center between these Confederate held islands was Fort Sumter, formerly a Federal Fort, but since the beginning of the war, under Confederate control. Because of the Confederate batteries located on these islands and Fort Sumter, and their proximity to the narrow bay entrance, they effectively stopped any Union vessels from entering the port.
DETAIL OF HARBOR ENTRANCE
SHOWING CONFEDERATE FORTIFICATIONS
General Gillmore’s Union forces were effectively stopped in their effort to control Morris Island because Fort Wagner was well fortified and well defended. Fort Wagner stretched completely across the narrow neck on the northeasterly end of Morris Island. Beyond Fort Wagner, on the tip of Morris Island was Cumming's Point, where Battery Gregg was located. Both Fort Wagner and Battery Gregg continued to fire on the Union forces occupying the island, and made it almost impossible for the Union army to advance on Charleston. Though Union Ironclads and gunboats had bombarded these positions during the initial attack, they remained active and stopped the Union advance.
Besides Fort Sumter, three additional Confederate batteries were located on Sullivan's Island, with Fort Moultrie being the most formidable.
MORRIS ISLAND DETAIL
Fort Wagner, which stretched across the northern neck of the island, and Battery Gregg, on Cumming's Point, were the two most difficult positions for the Union forces to overcome.
DETAIL-NORTH END OF MORRIS ISLAND
This map shows the location of the Swamp Angel Battery on the northern end of Morris Island and the surrounding creeks, and waterways. Also shown is the "boom" or chain location used to prevent enemy attack by boat, Confederate batteries Gregg and Wagner, and Payne’s wharf, located near the mouth of the creek, which flowed in front of the Swamp Angel Battery.
DETAIL OF MARSH BATTERY MAP
CONTEMPORARY VIEW OF CHARLESTON HARBOR